Text: Describing Location
This tutorial makes use of the location words that I uploaded previously (link in description).
As you may recall, I have previously taught how to ask where things are:
Gakkou wa doko desu ka.
Where is the school?
So far, all I've taught for a reply is "here", "there", and "over there".
Now we're going to learn to be a bit more descriptive.
The way the sentence is organized is as follows:
X は Y の (location word) です。
Where "X" is (location word) "Y".
This words for all of the location words I have given except for "between", but I'll get to that one specifically later on in this tutorial.
Let's see some examples:
Oterai wa kissaten no naka desu.
The restroom is inside the cafe.
Vocab: Location Words
みぎ (migi) = right
ひだり (hidari) = left
まえ (mae) = front (in this case for "location" but it can also mean "before")
うしろ (ushiro) = back/behind
なか (naka) = inside
うえ (ue) = on/above
した (shita) = below/under/beneath
そば (soba) = near
ちかく (chikaku) = near (more commonly used)
となり (tonari) = next to (items must be in the same category; IE two writing utensils, two foods, two buildings, etc.)
よこ (yoko) = next to (regardless of item category)
あいだ (aida) = between
This tutorial will cover the verb ru-verb 'iru'. As you may recall from the previous tutorial, 'aru' is used for inanimate or nonliving things. 'Iru', on the other hand, is used for living things.
'Iru' still follows the same rules as 'aru' in regards to particle use with 'ga' and 'ni'.
Let's see some examples.
Soko ni ryuugakusei ga imasu.
There is an international student there.
Notice the difference between the above and the below:
Bobu-san wa ryuugakusei desu.
Bob is an international student.
The first points out the existence of an international student whereas the latter says Bob /is/ international student.
Koko ni kame ga imasu.
There is a turtle here.
(Kame = t
Text: Aru (Basics)
For this tutorial, we'll be covering a few things. Keep in mind that this is just the basics for the following grammar.
Today, we will be learning "aru".
We use the 'ga' particle to introduce or present the item before it. (Later on I'll go more in-depth about the differences between 'ga' and 'wa', but for now, remember to just use 'ga'.)
"item+ga aru" means "there is/are (item)". The "item" in question must be something inanimate (such as a building, thing, or plant [as confirmed by my old Japanese teacher]) or nonliving. This is important to remember while using "aru"!
Let's try out a few sentences:
Asoko ni kissaten ga arimasu.
Over there is a cafe. / There is a cafe over there.
Let's break things down a bit:
あそこに (asoko ni) = over there (far away from both speaker and listener[s])