Text: Verbs: -Masu Form
The next verb form I'm going to teach you is the "masu" form. This will take some getting used to, but I'm sure you'll get it soon enough c:
The "masu" form is the present affirmative tense of verbs. It is also the future tense as the language has no separate way to say it. I'll go more over the meaning of the verbs at a later time. For now, let's just learn how to conjugate.
Let's start with 'ru-verbs'. To make a 'ru-verb' into 'masu' form, you take it's stem. The verb stems for 'ru-verbs' are very easy to figure out as they are the same their respective verb base. You add 'masu' to the verb stem and that's it for 'ru-verbs' Pretty simple, huh?
おきる (okiru) = dictionary form
おき (oki) = verb stem
Add "masu" and you get:
おきます (okimasu) = masu form
And that's it!
Go ahead and try it with the other verbs before going on.
たべる (taberu) = たべます (tabemasu)
ねる (neru) =
Text: Verbs: Dictionary Form
Hopefully by now you've had time to look over all the verbs that I posted previously. If not, I highly suggest doing that first before reading on!
Please note that this is not a tutorial on how to use verbs. This is only explaining them, their base form and their dictionary form. How to use them will come at a later time!
To be blunt and honest, verbs are, in my opinion, the most difficult thing to master of the Japanese language. Don't be scared though, I'll be taking you one step at a time and (hopefully) make things easy to understand and learn. So let's get to it!
Looking at all the verbs I've posted, I'm sure some of you have noticed a trend. (If not, that's fine.) All of the verbs end in an 'u'. You might have noticed that all the 'ru' verbs end in 'ru'. Well, that's where the name came from c: The 'u' verbs are verbs that can end in things other, but not excluding, 'ru'. This could be 'ku', 'mu', 'bu', 'u' (just itself), etc. An 'u' or 'ru' is added on to the verb base ('ik' as
Text: The Dangers of Romaji
The main reason I'm typing up this deviation (on the spot, mind you!) is from a shocking post on Yahoo Answers in which a person advised AGAINST learning hiragana and katakana and to ONLY learn romaji! This deviation will (hopefully) explain why that is the worst idea ever O_O
Their original advice:
"The best route to take is for the reading and writing side, focus on Roumaji, which is the romanized version of Japanese, and put most of your focus on speaking. I urge you not to focus on reading and writing Hiragana, katakana and kanji in the beginning, just focus on Roumaji and speaking and listening.
In any language at the end of the day you'll ALWAYS be better of to be able to listen and speak than to read and write. So focus on those." - (keeping it anonymous for protection)
There are loads of things wrong with the quote above, but let's talk about the positives of romaji first.
Romaji is wonderful for beginners and very helpful in learning the alphabets in general. Memoriz
Text: Past Negative Desu Form
To make past negative sentences, we combine both 'ja arimasen' and 'deshita' into one.
Sore ha watashi no inu ja arimasen deshita.
That was not my dog.
'Ja arimasen' makes the sentences negative and adding 'deshita' puts it in the past tense. 'Deshita' will always go after the negation and both will take the place of 'desu'.
To make a more formalized sentence, just replace 'ja arimasen' with 'dewa arimasen' as you saw previously.
Kore wa enpitsu dewa arimasen deshita.
This was not a pencil.
It may seem like a long thing to say/write/read to make something as short as "was not", but don't fret! There are much shorter versions that I'll cover later on. These versions will be informal tho
Text: Past Tense Desu Form
So we can say something 'is' something and something 'is not' something, now let's learn something 'was' something.
To make 'desu' into past tense, we say 'deshita'. Let's use it.
Kore wa ringo deshita.
This was an apple.
(Ringo = apple)
Sore wa watashi no jitensha deshita.
That was my bicycle.
Just like "ja arimasen", the only thing that changes is "desu". Everything else stays the same.
Sore mo watashi no tomodachi no kasa deshita.
That was also my friend's umbrella.
Sore mo = that also
watashi no = my
tomodachi no = friend's
kasa = umbrella
deshita = was
Text: Practice Dialogue 1
I've gone ahead and written some pieces of dialogue that cover everything up to this point. I hope you find it useful/helpful! You are welcome to change whatever parts you want, make additions, move things around, etc.
Person A: こんにちは！はじめまして！わたしはAです。
Person A: Konnichi wa! Hajimemashite. Watashi wa A desu.
Person B: こんにちは！わたしはBです。どうそうよろしく。
Person B: Konnichi wa! Watashi wa B desu. Douzou yoroshiku.
Person A: あなたはこうこうせいですか？
Person A: Anata wa koukousei desu ka?
Person B: いいえ、こうこうせいじゃありませ
Text: Negative Desu Form
Now you should by now know how to say that something /is/ something (x wa y desu). But how about something is /not/ something?
To negate an affirmative "desu" statement, you change "desu" to "ja arimasen". Let's see it in action:
Watashi wa daigakusei desu.
I am a college student.
Now change "desu" to "ja arimasen".
Watashi wa daigakusei ja arimasen.
I am not a college student.
Aside from "desu" changing, everything else remains the same and stays in the same place.
Another way to negate "desu" sentences is using the noncontracted form (and also the more formal form) of 'ja' which is 'dewa'.
Kore wa enpitsu dewa arimasen.
Text: Particle Mo, Ne, Yo
'Mo' in Japanese is basically the equivalent of the English word "too" or "also". It takes the place of the subject marker 'wa/ga' when used in a sentence. Let's try some examples.
Kore wa enpitsu desu.
That is a pencil.
Kore mo enpitsu desu.
That is also a pencil.
Be careful not to place 'mo' at the end of the sentence as in English, this happens quite often. (Example: I am a student also.)
Watashi wa gakusei desu.
I am a student.
Watashi mo gakusei desu.
I am also a student.
You don't have to use "full" sentences to add 'mo' to. They can be as simple as this:
Text: Days and Months
I figured I'd give you all a little break from grammar to bring in some more vocabulary c: I hope you won't think of this as repetitive since I already have a few deviations involving days and such, but I never really explained it. So here we go!
--DAYS OF THE WEEK--
The days of the week may be a little hard to remember, but if you think of just the kanji and how they're pronounced, that might help you.
If you noticed that the kanji for 'sun' is pronounced two different ways then good eye This is because that kanji can mean both 'sun' and 'day' depending on the context. The first time it refers to 'sun' and the second, 'day'. It literally means 'sun day'
Monday (or literally: moon day)
Tuesday (or literally: fire day)