Text: Particle Ni
The next particle to cover is 'ni'. 'Ni' has many uses, but for the purpose of this tutorial, I will be covering two of them.
The first one is "the goal of movement" or "the goal toward which things move." This is just like the 'e' particle. You can use either one, it does not matter.
Kyou, watashi wa gakkou ni ikimasu.
Today, I will go to school.
Today, I (subject) will be going (movement) to school (place of destination; you are moving to get there).
Kinou, watashi wa uchi ni kaerimashita.
Yesterday, I went home.
The second purpose is for time. 'Ni' is used when a /specific/ time or date is being said. However, the particle 'e' CANNOT be used for this purpose. 'E' and 'ni' are
Text: Particles De and E
For this tutorial, I will be covering the /basics/ of two particles: de and e.
Let's get started with the 'de' particle. The 'de' particle marks the noun in which the verb/action takes place. A somewhat literal translation would be the equivalent of 'in' or 'at'.
Watashi wa uchi de nihongo wo benkyoushimasu.
At home I study Japanese. OR I study Japanese at home.
(Keep in mind, this could also be understood as, "I will study Japanese at home." depending on the context/intended meaning.)
'Uchi' or 'home' is where the studying takes place, thus marked with 'de'.
Watashi wa tomodachi no ie de terebi wo mimashita.
I watched TV
Text: Particle Wo + Using Verbs
This tutorial will cover using verbs in a sentence as well as the particle 'wo'.
Before we get into any verbs, we need to first learn what 'wo' is. 'Wo' is the particle used for marking the direct object in a sentence. It comes after the direct object in the sentence.
For those of who you who need a referesher in what direct objects are, here is a quick review:
In English, the direct object will follow a transitive/action verb and can be nouns, pronouns, etc. They answer the question "who?" or "what?"
Some simple examples:
I (sub.) ate (verb) a banana (d.o.).
We (sub.) played (verb) soccer (d.o.).
If you need more information, Google is your friend <3
But where would it go in a Japanese sentence? If you can recall from earlier, Japanese sentence structure is different from English. Verbs are always at the end (with some exceptions, but that's for later). Aside from that, you can play around a bit with word order, but more about that at another time. For now, let's just
Text: Verbs: -Masen, -Mashita, -Masendeshita
For this tutorial, I'll be covering present negative, past affirmative and past negative of the "masu" form. This may remind you of the "desu" lessons covered previously as there are similarities.
Hopefully you remember how to get to the "masu" form from each verb type as this is necessary before moving on. Let's get started!
The first form to cover is the present negative form. What this basically means is a sentence like, "This is not an apple." The sentence is in the present tense (is) but also negative (not). To achieve this, we change "masu" after the verb stem to "masen".
Notice how the verb stem changes the same. This case is true for all of these conjugations.
To make a past affirmative sentence (This was an apple), change "masu" to "mashita".
And finally, p
Text: Verbs: -Masu Form
The next verb form I'm going to teach you is the "masu" form. This will take some getting used to, but I'm sure you'll get it soon enough c:
The "masu" form is the present affirmative tense of verbs. It is also the future tense as the language has no separate way to say it. I'll go more over the meaning of the verbs at a later time. For now, let's just learn how to conjugate.
Let's start with 'ru-verbs'. To make a 'ru-verb' into 'masu' form, you take it's stem. The verb stems for 'ru-verbs' are very easy to figure out as they are the same their respective verb base. You add 'masu' to the verb stem and that's it for 'ru-verbs' Pretty simple, huh?
おきる (okiru) = dictionary form
おき (oki) = verb stem
Add "masu" and you get:
おきます (okimasu) = masu form
And that's it!
Go ahead and try it with the other verbs before going on.
たべる (taberu) = たべます (tabemasu)
ねる (neru) =
Text: Verbs: Dictionary Form
Hopefully by now you've had time to look over all the verbs that I posted previously. If not, I highly suggest doing that first before reading on!
Please note that this is not a tutorial on how to use verbs. This is only explaining them, their base form and their dictionary form. How to use them will come at a later time!
To be blunt and honest, verbs are, in my opinion, the most difficult thing to master of the Japanese language. Don't be scared though, I'll be taking you one step at a time and (hopefully) make things easy to understand and learn. So let's get to it!
Looking at all the verbs I've posted, I'm sure some of you have noticed a trend. (If not, that's fine.) All of the verbs end in an 'u'. You might have noticed that all the 'ru' verbs end in 'ru'. Well, that's where the name came from c: The 'u' verbs are verbs that can end in things other, but not excluding, 'ru'. This could be 'ku', 'mu', 'bu', 'u' (just itself), etc. An 'u' or 'ru' is added on to the verb base ('ik' as
Text: The Dangers of Romaji
The main reason I'm typing up this deviation (on the spot, mind you!) is from a shocking post on Yahoo Answers in which a person advised AGAINST learning hiragana and katakana and to ONLY learn romaji! This deviation will (hopefully) explain why that is the worst idea ever O_O
Their original advice:
"The best route to take is for the reading and writing side, focus on Roumaji, which is the romanized version of Japanese, and put most of your focus on speaking. I urge you not to focus on reading and writing Hiragana, katakana and kanji in the beginning, just focus on Roumaji and speaking and listening.
In any language at the end of the day you'll ALWAYS be better of to be able to listen and speak than to read and write. So focus on those." - (keeping it anonymous for protection)
There are loads of things wrong with the quote above, but let's talk about the positives of romaji first.
Romaji is wonderful for beginners and very helpful in learning the alphabets in general. Memoriz
Text: Past Negative Desu Form
To make past negative sentences, we combine both 'ja arimasen' and 'deshita' into one.
Sore ha watashi no inu ja arimasen deshita.
That was not my dog.
'Ja arimasen' makes the sentences negative and adding 'deshita' puts it in the past tense. 'Deshita' will always go after the negation and both will take the place of 'desu'.
To make a more formalized sentence, just replace 'ja arimasen' with 'dewa arimasen' as you saw previously.
Kore wa enpitsu dewa arimasen deshita.
This was not a pencil.
It may seem like a long thing to say/write/read to make something as short as "was not", but don't fret! There are much shorter versions that I'll cover later on. These versions will be informal tho
Text: Past Tense Desu Form
So we can say something 'is' something and something 'is not' something, now let's learn something 'was' something.
To make 'desu' into past tense, we say 'deshita'. Let's use it.
Kore wa ringo deshita.
This was an apple.
(Ringo = apple)
Sore wa watashi no jitensha deshita.
That was my bicycle.
Just like "ja arimasen", the only thing that changes is "desu". Everything else stays the same.
Sore mo watashi no tomodachi no kasa deshita.
That was also my friend's umbrella.
Sore mo = that also
watashi no = my
tomodachi no = friend's
kasa = umbrella
deshita = was