Text: Invitation (masenka)
In this tutorial, I will be going over inviting someone to join you in something. To make an invitation, you take the present negative form of the verb and add the particle 'ka' at the end. You cannot use the affirmative form to extend an invitation. It would only make a question, not an invitation.
Let's try some:
Bangohan wo tabemasen ka.
Would you like to have dinner (with me)? (Or something to that effect.)
Sakkaa wo shimasen ka.
Would you like to play soccer (with me)?
To give a reply to an invitation, you would use replies like the ones below:
Ii desu ne.
Sounds good. / It's good. / etc.
This would obviously be used as a positive response in which the person accepts your invitation. To turn someone down, you would use a reply such as the one
Text: Using Frequency Adverbs
For this tutorial, we will be making use of the frequency adverbs that I posted earlier. If you have not looked them over, I suggest you do so now.
Frequency adverbs help you better describe how often you do something, be it every day, not at all, or somewhere in between c:
Watashi wa tokidoki worumaato ni ikimasu.
I sometimes go to Walmart.
Watashi wa yoku shukudai wo shimasu.
I often do homework.
Watashi wa mainichi pan wo tabemasu.
I eat bread every day.
You do not need a particle after a frequency adverb.
To describe how infrequent you do something, you would use 'zenzen
Vocab: Frequency Adverbs
あまり + negative
Amari + negative
ぜんぜん + negative
Zenzen + negative
not at all
Text: Particle Ni
The next particle to cover is 'ni'. 'Ni' has many uses, but for the purpose of this tutorial, I will be covering two of them.
The first one is "the goal of movement" or "the goal toward which things move." This is just like the 'e' particle. You can use either one, it does not matter.
Kyou, watashi wa gakkou ni ikimasu.
Today, I will go to school.
Today, I (subject) will be going (movement) to school (place of destination; you are moving to get there).
Kinou, watashi wa uchi ni kaerimashita.
Yesterday, I went home.
The second purpose is for time. 'Ni' is used when a /specific/ time or date is being said. However, the particle 'e' CANNOT be used for this purpose. 'E' and 'ni' are
Text: Particles De and E
For this tutorial, I will be covering the /basics/ of two particles: de and e.
Let's get started with the 'de' particle. The 'de' particle marks the noun in which the verb/action takes place. A somewhat literal translation would be the equivalent of 'in' or 'at'.
Watashi wa uchi de nihongo wo benkyoushimasu.
At home I study Japanese. OR I study Japanese at home.
(Keep in mind, this could also be understood as, "I will study Japanese at home." depending on the context/intended meaning.)
'Uchi' or 'home' is where the studying takes place, thus marked with 'de'.
Watashi wa tomodachi no ie de terebi wo mimashita.
I watched TV
Text: Particle Wo + Using Verbs
This tutorial will cover using verbs in a sentence as well as the particle 'wo'.
Before we get into any verbs, we need to first learn what 'wo' is. 'Wo' is the particle used for marking the direct object in a sentence. It comes after the direct object in the sentence.
For those of who you who need a referesher in what direct objects are, here is a quick review:
In English, the direct object will follow a transitive/action verb and can be nouns, pronouns, etc. They answer the question "who?" or "what?"
Some simple examples:
I (sub.) ate (verb) a banana (d.o.).
We (sub.) played (verb) soccer (d.o.).
If you need more information, Google is your friend <3
But where would it go in a Japanese sentence? If you can recall from earlier, Japanese sentence structure is different from English. Verbs are always at the end (with some exceptions, but that's for later). Aside from that, you can play around a bit with word order, but more about that at another time. For now, let's just
Text: Verbs: -Masen, -Mashita, -Masendeshita
For this tutorial, I'll be covering present negative, past affirmative and past negative of the "masu" form. This may remind you of the "desu" lessons covered previously as there are similarities.
Hopefully you remember how to get to the "masu" form from each verb type as this is necessary before moving on. Let's get started!
The first form to cover is the present negative form. What this basically means is a sentence like, "This is not an apple." The sentence is in the present tense (is) but also negative (not). To achieve this, we change "masu" after the verb stem to "masen".
Notice how the verb stem changes the same. This case is true for all of these conjugations.
To make a past affirmative sentence (This was an apple), change "masu" to "mashita".
And finally, p
Text: Verbs: -Masu Form
The next verb form I'm going to teach you is the "masu" form. This will take some getting used to, but I'm sure you'll get it soon enough c:
The "masu" form is the present affirmative tense of verbs. It is also the future tense as the language has no separate way to say it. I'll go more over the meaning of the verbs at a later time. For now, let's just learn how to conjugate.
Let's start with 'ru-verbs'. To make a 'ru-verb' into 'masu' form, you take it's stem. The verb stems for 'ru-verbs' are very easy to figure out as they are the same their respective verb base. You add 'masu' to the verb stem and that's it for 'ru-verbs' Pretty simple, huh?
おきる (okiru) = dictionary form
おき (oki) = verb stem
Add "masu" and you get:
おきます (okimasu) = masu form
And that's it!
Go ahead and try it with the other verbs before going on.
たべる (taberu) = たべます (tabemasu)
ねる (neru) =